Mantida condenação de destilaria que descumpriu cota de aprendizagem – Andreoli Advogados

A Subseção I Especializada em Dissídios Individuais (SDI-1) do Tribunal Superior do Trabalho rejeitou recurso da Destilaria de Álcool Libra Ltda., de São José do Rio Claro (MT), contra a condenação ao pagamento de R$ 300 mil por ter descumprido a exigência legal de empregar aprendizes em 5% do total de postos de trabalho. Por maioria, o colegiado entendeu que ficou caracterizado o dano moral coletivo.

Caso

O caso teve início em ação civil pública promovida pelo Ministério Público do Trabalho (MPT), em junho de 2011, para que a empresa cumprisse a cota de aprendizes, conforme determina o artigo 429 da CLT. Segundo apurado pelo MPT, no momento da fiscalização pelo extinto Ministério do Trabalho, a Libra não tinha nenhum aprendiz. Com total de 1.300 empregados, a empresa deveria, de acordo com o Ministério Público, contratar 65 aprendizes no mínimo. 

Defesa

Na época, a empresa declarou que o auto de infração lavrado tomou por base a totalidade de 1.300 trabalhadores, “sem excluir, entretanto, as funções que não demandam formação profissional na fixação da base de cálculo”. Na versão da Libra, em vez dos 65 aprendizes, seriam necessários 33 para cumprir a legislação. 

Conduta antijurídica

Em novembro de 2012, o Tribunal Regional do Trabalho da 23ª Região (MT) decidiu que não houve dano moral coletivo, mas a Terceira Turma do TST reformou a decisão e condenou a destilaria, em fevereiro de 2018, ao pagamento de indenização de R$ 300 mil, ao julgar recurso do MPT. A Turma considerou antijurídica a conduta da Libra ao deixar de observar a legislação trabalhista relativa à contratação de aprendizes.

Presunção de lesão

Nos embargos à SDI-1, a Libra contestou a condenação e classificou como “exorbitante” o valor fixado para a indenização. Para reforçar o pedido de diminuição do valor, anexou comprovante de que estava em recuperação judicial. Argumentou, ainda, que o dano moral coletivo pressupõe a prática de ilícito causador de repulsa social e que seria preciso demonstrar a relação entre a sua conduta e a lesão à coletividade. Para a empresa, a condenação ocorreu com base em presunção de lesão. 

Função social

O relator dos embargos, ministro Vieira de Mello Filho, enfatizou que não é necessário comprovar a repercussão de eventual violação na consciência coletiva do grupo social, “já ofendido moralmente a partir do fato objetivo da violação da ordem jurídica”. Segundo o ministro, o desrespeito à norma de tal natureza, que reserva cotas aos aprendizes, alcança, potencialmente, todos os trabalhadores sem experiência profissional situados na mesma localidade do estabelecimento comercial, que poderiam ser contratados pela empresa. 

Ainda, segundo o relator, ao deixar de cumprir a cota, a usina descumpriu também sua obrigação de promover a inclusão dessas pessoas e, portanto, sua função social. “É o que basta para que se caracterize o dano moral coletivo”, concluiu.

O valor da condenação será revertido para instituições e projetos ligados ao trabalho. Ficaram vencidos os ministros Maria Cristina Peduzzi, Márcio Amaro e Alexandre Ramos.

Processo: 822-68.2011.5.23.0056

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