Segunda Turma destaca importância social das calçadas ao negar permanência de quiosques sem autorização – Andreoli Advogados

Apesar de ocuparem lugar menos prestigiado no imaginário popular e nos orçamentos públicos do que praças, pontes e jardins, as calçadas exercem papel indispensável no planejamento das cidades. Integrantes da família dos bens públicos, como previsto no artigo 99, inciso I, do Código Civil, as calçadas são de todos, mas isso não significa que nelas seja permitida a livre ocupação e edificação: ao contrário, é dever comum dos entes públicos e dos particulares garantir a livre circulação nesses espaços.

As considerações foram feitas pelo ministro Herman Benjamin em julgamento no qual a Segunda Turma do Superior Tribunal de Justiça (STJ), de forma unânime, manteve acórdão do Tribunal de Justiça do Distrito Federal e dos Territórios (TJDFT) que considerou legítima a ação do poder público ao interditar três quiosques comerciais instalados em calçadas na região administrativa de Taguatinga.

Relator do recurso especial, Herman Benjamin comentou que, em um país marcado por favelas e por pessoas vivendo ao relento, poderia soar irrealista esperar que o Judiciário se preocupasse com a proteção das calçadas. Essa visão, segundo o ministro, é equivocada, pois o verdadeiro juiz se revela ao decidir questões jurídicas que, embora pareçam relacionadas a dificuldades do presente ou a concepções obsoletas do passado, se projetam sobre as gerações futuras.

“E, não é segredo, calçadas e cidades do amanhã se formam no seio do caos urbano da nossa época, mesmo que ainda não passem de esqueletos imperfeitos à espera, mais adiante, de corpo imaginado ou de destino prometido pela Constituição e pelas leis. Essa exatamente a expectativa que o Est​​a​​tuto da Cidade deposita – se faltar ou falhar ação administrativa ou sobrar cobiça individual – no Judiciário brasileiro, ao prescrever que a política urbana deve garantir o ‘direito a cidades sustentáveis’, em favor das ‘presentes e futuras gerações'” – resumiu o ministro.

De inexiste​​nte a indispensável

No recurso contra a decisão do TJDFT, os comerciantes alegaram que pagavam tributos e ocupavam a área na justa expectativa de que a situação fosse regularizada pelo poder público, com a concessão de licença de funcionamento – motivo pelo qual a eventual demolição dos quiosques seria desproporcional e desarrazoada.

Ao analisar o caso, o ministro Herman Benjamin apontou que o espaço em discussão é inequivocamente de uso público e, além disso, tanto a ocupação como a atividade comercial careciam de aprovação estatal, por ausência de licitação e licenciamento.

Segundo o relator, em cidades tomadas por veículos, as calçadas integram o mínimo existencial de espaço público dos pedestres, que constituem a maioria da população. No Estado Social de Direito – apontou –, o ato de se deslocar a pé em segurança e com conforto qualifica-se como direito de todos.

Em seu voto, o ministro traçou um panorama histórico sobre a transformação das calçadas, que saíram da classificação de artigo inexistente ou supérfluo mesmo nas maiores cidades do mundo para se tornarem item indispensável no planejamento urbano, pelo seu papel na segurança, no lazer, na estética e na arborização.

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